Functions

Functions are pervasive in Antimony code. You’ve already seen one of the most important functions in the language: the main function, which is the entry point of many programs. You've also seen the fn keyword, which allows you to declare new functions.

Antimony code uses snake_case as the conventional style for function and variable names. In snake case, all letters are lowercase and underscores separate words. Here’s a program that contains an example function definition:

fn main() {
    println("Hello, world!")
    another_function()
}

fn another_function() {
    println("Another function.")
}

We can call any function we’ve defined by entering its name followed by a set of parentheses. Because another_function is defined in the program, it can be called from inside the main function. Note that we defined another_function after the main function in the source code; we could have defined it before as well. Antimony doesn’t care where you define your functions, only that they’re defined somewhere.

Function parameters

Functions can also be defined to have parameters, which are special variables that are part of a function’s signature. When a function has parameters, you can provide it with concrete values for those parameters. Technically, the concrete values are called arguments, but in casual conversation, people tend to use the words parameter and argument interchangeably for either the variables in a function’s definition or the concrete values passed in when you call a function.

The following rewritten version of another_function shows what parameters look like in Antimony:

fn main() {
    another_function(5)
}

fn another_function(x: int) {
    println(x)
}

Return types

Functions can optionally return a value. To specify the return type, it is added to the function signature, similar to how variables and parameters do. Here's a simple example of a function that returns an integer:

fn add_one(x: int): int {}

Note that this function won't compile, since it doesn't actually return anything. Let's fix that by adding a return statement with an expression:

fn add_one(x: int): int {
    return x + 1
}

Now, if you call the function with 1 as its argument and read its value, you will see the computed result:

fn main() {
    let result = add_one(1)
    println(result)
}

fn add_one(x: int): int {
    return x + 1
}
$ sb run main.sb
2